Read more about high jump technique.
Pole Vault: Pole vaulters have many similar characteristics as high jumpers, but require excellent upper body strength as well. Each vaulter sprints down the runway and plants the pole – typically made from fiberglass or carbon fiber – into the vaulting box, then catapults himself over the crossbar and onto the landing mat. As with high jumping, vaulters may touch the bar, as long as it doesn’t fall. Round-by-round scoring rules are the same as for the high jump, just at much greater heights. As with all the jumping events, the pole vault takes place during both indoor and outdoor meets.
Long Jump: The competitors sprint down the runway and lift up when they hit the takeoff bar, landing in a sand pit. If any part of the runner’s foot goes past the takeoff bar the jumper is called for a foul and receives no score for the round. Distance is measured from the end of the takeoff bar to the closest mark made the jumper in the pit. Competitions go a maximum of six rounds. At major six-round events, such as the Olympics or World Championships, only the top eight competitors after three rounds continue to finish the final three rounds. The single longest jump wins the competition.
Read more about long jump technique.
Triple Jump: This event was once termed the “hop, skip and jump,” which is a more accurate description of what the athletes do than “triple jump.” The event begins like a long jump, with competitors dashing down the runway and leaping from a takeoff board. But instead of jumping directly into the landing pit, the competitors land on another runway and immediately push off with one foot, then land on the same foot. They then “skip” onto their opposite foot, from which they take off again, into the landing area. The event is scored identically to the long jump.
Discus Throw: Discus throwers use a larger throwing circle than shot putters, with a diameter of 2.5 meters, and throw a mostly metal disc. Senior women throw a 1-kg discus, while the men’s discus weighs 2 kg. Otherwise, a discus competition looks like, and is scored like, a shot put competition in which all competitors use the rotational technique. The only other difference is the large metal throwing cage that partially encircles the competitors to protect spectators from a wildly thrown discus.
Read more about discus throw technique.
Javelin Throw: The javelin is the only throwing competition in which the athletes don’t throw from a circle. Instead, throwers dash down a runway to generate momentum for their throws, but must not cross the foul line, even after hurling the javelin. The spear-like javelin used by senior men weighs 800 grams; the women’s version is 600 g. Scoring is the same as all other throwing events: six rounds of competition, with the longest throw winning.
Read more about javelin throwing technique.
Hammer Throw: Today’s “hammer” is actually a metal ball attached to a steel wire with a rigid handle for a grip. The men’s device weighs 7.26 kg, the women’s 4 kg. Throwers use the same circle as shot putters, as well as the same cage that discus throwers employ. Like discus throwers and some shot putters, hammer throwers spin within the circle to generate momentum before releasing the hammer.